SDM   Seed-based d Mapping
formerly "Signed Differential Mapping"
Share on Facebook:   Facebook
Seed-based d Mapping
Neuroimaging software library including meta-analytic methods
for fMRI, VBM, DTI and PET and other tools

Download software | Meta-analysis Tutorial | Meta-analysis Manual | SDM tools manual
New Anisotropic ES-SDM version 5.15 (Apr 2018) available +

Please replace older versions of SDM software by Anisotropic ES-SDM version 5.15, which includes the following new features:

  • New improved graphical user interface (GUI), now for Windows, Linux and Mac OSX
  • Possibility to combine repeated measures (e.g. from several contrasts of the same sample).
  • Easy automatic creation of funnel plots and Egger tests.
  • ... and some other improvements ;-)

Please feel free to download the new software


Seed-based d Mapping (formerly "Signed Differential Mapping") is a statistical technique for meta-analyzing studies on differences in brain activity or structure which used neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, VBM, DTI or PET. The methods have been fully validated in several studies (see references below), and meta-analyses using this method have been already published at the highest quality journals, such as Archives of General Psychiatry / JAMA Psychiatry link link link link, the American Journal of Psychiatry link link link, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews link link link link link link link link, Biological Psychiatry link link, Schizophrenia Bulletin link link, Current Opinion in Neurobiology link, Neuropsychopharmacology link, the British Journal of Psychiatry link, Neuroimage link, Human Brain Mapping link, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience link, Radiology link, Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience link link or Psychological Medicine link link link link, to cite a few (this list of papers was last updated in 2014, many others have been published since then).

The method

An introduction of the method can be found in the SDM Reference Manual.

Briefly, some of the features are:

The software

Please feel free to download the software created by the SDM Project to carry out such meta-analyses.


Introduction to voxel-based meta-analyses:

  1. Radua J and Mataix-Cols D. Meta-analytic methods for neuroimaging data explained. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 2012; 2:6. link

SDM methods:

  1. Radua J and Mataix-Cols D. Voxel-wise meta-analysis of grey matter changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 195:393-402. link
  2. Radua J, van den Heuvel OA, Surguladze S and Mataix-Cols D. Meta-analytical comparison of voxel-based morphometry studies in obsessive compulsive disorder vs other anxiety disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67:701-711. link
  3. Radua J, Mataix-Cols D, Phillips ML, El-Hage W, Kronhaus DM, Cardoner N and Surguladze S. A new meta-analytic method for neuroimaging studies that combines reported peak coordinates and statistical parametric maps. Eur Psychiatry 2012; 27:605–611. link
  4. Radua J, Rubia K, Canales-Rodriguez EJ, Pomarol-Clotet E, Fusar-Poli P and Mataix-Cols D. Anisotropic kernels for coordinate-based meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies. Front Psychiatry 2014; 5:13. link

SDM specific white matter and TBSS templates:

  1. Radua J, Via E, Catani M and Mataix-Cols D. Voxel-based meta-analysis of regional white-matter volume differences in autism spectrum disorder versus healthy controls. Psychol Med 2011; 41:1539-1550. link
  2. Peters BD, Szeszko PR, Radua J, Ikuta T, Gruner P, DeRosse P, Zhang JP, Giorgio A, Qiu D, Tapert SF, Brauer J, Asato MR, Khong PL, James AC, Gallego JA and Malhotra AK. White matter development in adolescence: diffusion tensor imaging and meta-analytic results. Schizophrenia Bull 2012; 38:1308-1317. link

Multimodal meta-analyses:

  1. Radua J, Romeo M, Mataix-Cols D and Fusar-Poli P. A general approach for combining voxel-based meta-analyses conducted in different neuroimaging modalities. Curr Med Chem 2013; 20:462-466. link

Improved atlas:

  1. Radua J, Grau M, van den Heuvel OA, de Schotten MT, Stein DJ, Canales-Rodriguez EJ, Catani M and Mataix-Cols D. Multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis of white matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2014; 39:1547-57. link
  2. Thiebaut de Schotten M, Dell'Acqua F, Forkel SJ, Simmons A, Vergani F, Murphy DG and Catani M. A lateralized brain network for visuospatial attention. Nat Neurosci 2011; 14:1245-1246. link
  3. Thiebaut de Schotten M, Ffytche DH, Bizzi A, Dell'Acqua F, Allin M, Walshe M, Murray R, Williams SC, Murphy DG and Catani M. Atlasing location, asymmetry and inter-subject variability of white matter tracts in the human brain with MR diffusion tractography. Neuroimage 2011; 54:49-59. link

Repeated measures:

  1. Rubia K, Alegria AA, Cubillo AI, Smith AB, Brammer MJ, Radua J. Effects of stimulants on brain function in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry 2014; 76:616-28. link
  2. Alegria AA, Radua J, Rubia K. Meta-analysis of fMRI studies of disruptive behavior disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2016; in Press. link
  3. Norman LJ, Carlisi C, Lukito S, Hart H, Mataix-Cols D, Radua J, Rubia K. Structural and functional brain abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comparative meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 2016; 73:815-25. link
Other known studies using SDM (probably not all of them): [THIS LIST WAS LAST UPDATED IN 2014] +